DIAGNOSIS HARA KENDALA PENINGKATAN HASIL KACANG TANAH PADA ALFISOL NGADIROJO, WONOGIRI

Sudaryono Sudaryono, A. Wijanarko, Sutarno Sutarno

Abstract


Diagnosis dan karakterisasi suatu lahan merupakan satu tahapan penting untuk mengenali kendala
peningkatan hasil, bentuk pengelolaan yang diperlukan, dan gambaran potensi hasilnya. Penelitian dilakukan di
wilayah Kecamatan Ngadirojo, Kabupaten Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah. Metode penelitian adalah sigi (survey) dengan
mengambil contoh tanah lapisan atas (top soil) pada kedalaman 0-20 cm. Contoh tanah diambil dari 11 desa dan setiap
desa diambil dua titik pengambilan secara acak. Analisis kimiawi lengkap dikerjakan di laboratorium Balitkabi, yang
meliputi pH tanah, kadar hara N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, KTK, dan kadar C-organik. Disamping
pengambilan contoh tanah, dilakukan pula sigi hasil (yield cut survey) untuk tanaman kacang tanah yang diusahakan
oleh petani menurut teknologi petani setempat. Data agronomi terhadap sigi hasil kacang tanah terdiri atas hasil ubinan
dan komponen hasil. Hasil diagnosis status hara tanah di wilayah Kecamatan Ngadirojo menunjukkan bahwa (1)
semua desa memiliki status N rendah; (2) status P beragam: enam lokasi (27%) rendah, 11 lokasi (50%) sedang, dan 5
lokasi (23 %) tinggi; (3) status K menunjukkan 45% lokasi berstatus rendah dan sisanya berstatus tinggi; (4) status S
rendah hingga tinggi; (5) status Ca, Mg, dan hara mikro tergolong tinggi; (6) terdapat peluang yang cukup besar
untuk memperkecil senjang hasil kacang tanah di tingkat petani di wilayah Kecamatan Ngadirojo, Wonogiri; dan (7)
hasil kacang tanah pada sistem tanam koak (2,20 t polong kering/ha) lebih tinggi dibandingkan sistem tugal (1,95 t/ha).
Kata kunci: diagnosisi hara, kacang tanah, produksi, alfisol

 

ABSTRACT
Diagnosis and characterization of land is one of important step to distinguish: a constraint of increasing
yield, type of management is being required, and yield potential figure. The research was done and concentrated in
Ngadirojo subdistrict, Wonogiri, Central Java province. The method of survey was soil sampling and taking soil
sample from top soil in 0-20 cm depth. Soil samples were taken up from 11 villages, each villages was taken
randomly at two sites. Analysis of soil sample consisted of status P, K, Ca, Mg, S, pH, C-organic and micro
nutrients Fe and Zn. A part from soil sampling, it was done yield cut survey for groundnut at the farmer's field.
The agronomic data of yield cut survey consisted of yield and component of yield.The result of diagnosis
indicated that (1) all the villages area of Ngadirojo sub district have low nitrogen fertility; (2) The phosphorus
fertility in Ngadirojo is vary, there are six location (27 %) having low P fertility status, eleven location (50 %)
having medium P fertility status, and five location (23 %) having high P fertility status; (3) Potassium fertility
status in Ngadirojo indicated that 45 % area have low K fertility and high status for the rest; (4) the sulfur
fertility is vary from low to high; (5). The Ca, Mg, and micronutrients are high at all location of Ngadirojo sub
distrist; (6). There is a big challenge to minimize yield gap of groundnut Ngadirojo sub district; and (7) At farmers
level, the hole planting technique by hue ("sistem koak") produced groundnut yield higher than "tugal technique"
(2.20 t dry pod versus 1.95 Aa).
Key words: diagnosis of nutrient, groundnut, yield, alfisol

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.agrin.2010.14.1.100

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Jurnal Agrin
Agriculture Research Journal
Faculty of Agriculture, Jenderal Soedirman University
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