ANALISIS PEMASARAN MANGGA “GEDONG GINCU” (Studi kasus di Kabupaten Cirebon, Jawa Barat)

Ade Supriatna

Abstract


Mangga Gedong Gincu mempunyai prospek baik untuk dikembangkan karena mempunyai karakteristik yang
sesuai dengan permintaan pasar, yaitu mempunyai kulit mangga berwarna merah, komponen serat pada daging buah
cukup banyak dan mempunyai aroma sangat tajam. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan tahun 2006 di Kabupaten Cirebon,
sebagai sentra produksi mangga di Jawa Barat. Tujuan penelitian, yaitu: (i) menggambarkan rantai tataniaga mangga
(ii) mempelajari karakteristik pelaku lembaga pemasaran dan (iii) menganalisis margin tataniaga. Penelitian
menggunakan metoda survai. Dimana data primer dikumpulkan dari 50 petani yang diambil secara acak (Random
Sampling) dan pelaku lembaga pemasaran dengan metode snowball sampling. Data sekunder diperoleh dari Dinas
Pertanian, Badan Pusat Statistik dan Lembaga Penelitian. Hasil penelitian menginformasikan, bahwa buah Gedong
Gincu dipasarkan dalam bentuk grade A/B dan grade C (non grade). Pemasaran grade A/B melalui dua saluran,
yaitu, pertama: petani – pengumpul - pedagang besar – agen - toko/kios buah – konsumen dan kedua: petani –
pengumpul – pedagang besar – agen – suplayer – supermarket – konsumen sedangkan grade C melalui satu saluran,
yaitu saluran ketiga: petani – pengumpul – pedagang besar – pedagang pasar tradisional – konsumen. Marjin
pemasaran saluran pertama Rp.10.920,-/kg, berasal dari pedagang besar (48,1%), toko/kios (35,4%), agen (14,2%)
dan pengumpul (2,3%). Marjin pemasaran saluran kedua Rp.15.000,-/kg, berasal dari pedagang besar (34,9%),
suplayer (26,6%), supermarket (26,6%), agen (10,2%) dan pengumpul (1,7%). Keuntungan pedagang besar lebih
tinggi dibandingkan agen, yaitu masing-masing Rp.3.350,-/kg dan Rp.1.460,-/kg. Permasalahan pemasaran mangga
Gedong Gincu yaitu posisi petani seringkali lemah dalam penentuan harga jual, jumlah serta mutu produk yang
dihasilkan tidak selalu sesuai permintaan pasar, petani bermodal lemah sering terperangkap ke pelepas uang (money
lender) dan ditemukan pungutan-pungutan liar dalam kegiatan transportasi pengiriman mangga ke agen di pasar-pasar
induk. Dalam hal ini, perlu peningkatan aksesibilitas petani terhadap informasi pasar termasuk permintaan, variasi harga
musiman dan trend harga dengan demikian mereka dapat menyesuaikan rencana penjualan mangga untuk mencapai
penjualan efisien dan menguntungkan.
Kata kunci: mangga, analisis pemasaran, Jawa Barat

 

ABSTRACT
Gedong Gincu have a good prospect to be developed because it has some characteristics as good as market
request, namely mango’s skin is red, mango contains a lot of fiber components and aroma of ripe mango is very
sharply This study was conducted in 2006 and took place in Cirebon District, as centre of mango production of West
Java. The objectives of study were; (i) to describe the marketing channel, (ii) to learn the characteristics of
marketing institution and (iii) to analyze marketing margin of mango. This research used method of survey applying
structured questionnaires. Primary data were collected from 50 farmers selected by random sampling and some
marketing institutions using snowball method. Secondary data were collected from the Agriculture Office, the Centre
Agency of Statistic and the Research Institutions. Results showed, that mango was marketed in the form of grade A/B
and grade C (non grade). Grade A/B had two marketing channels, namely; (i) farmers – collector – wholesaler –
agent – fruit shop – consumer and (ii) farmers – collector – wholesaler – agent – supplier – supermarket –
consumer. While grade C had one channel, namely (iii) farmers – collector – wholesaler – nonstore retailer –
consumer. The first channel got marketing margin of Rp.10,920,- coming from wholesaler (48.1%), fruit shop
(35.4%), agent (14.2%) and collector (2.3%). The second channel got marketing margin of Rp.15,000,- coming
from wholesaler (34.9%), supplier (26.6%), supermarket (26.6%), agent (10.2%) and collector (1.7%). Theproblems in marketing were the farmers have a low bargaining position in determining the mango’s price, the
amount and quality of product did not always accord to market request, the farmers that have weak capital were
often fallen on money lender and there were found the illegal charges in activity of transportation. Some
recommended efforts in farmer’s level, namely to increase the farmer’s knowledge and skill to produce mango’s
quality according to market request by low cost technology, to improve the farmer’s accessibility to market
information inclusive of request, variation of seasonal price and trend price thereby they can plan the mango sale to
reach effective, efficient and profit sale.
Key words: mang, marketing analysis, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.agrin.2010.14.2.105

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Agriculture Research Journal
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