EVALUASI NENAS HIBRIDA HASIL PERSILANGAN ANTARA CAYENNE, QUEEN, A. BRACTEATUS, DAN MERAH

Sri Hadiati, Sri Yuliati

Abstract


Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi karakter-karakter penting pada nenas hibrida hasil persilangan
antara Cayenne, Queen, A. bracteatus dan Merah. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah
Tropika Solok mulai bulan Juni 2004 sampai Desember 2006. Materi genetik yang digunakan adalah nenas
hibrida hasil persilangan antara Cayenne x Queen (58 tanaman), Cayenne X A. bracteatus (24 tanaman) dan
Cayenne x Merah (26 tanaman). Semua tanaman ditanam dalam polibag ukuran 40x50 cm. Pengamatan
dilakukan per individu tanaman terhadap karakter kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
distribusi duri dan bentuk mata dipengaruhi oleh tetua betina. Persilangan Cayenne x Queen menghasilkan
hibrida dengan persentase terbanyak pada ukuran mahkota kecil (≤ 100 g), dan rasa sangat manis (TSS > 20°
brix ) berturut-turut 48.27% dan 8.62%. Persilangan Cayenne x A. bracteatus menghasilkan hibrida dengan
persentase diameter hati kecil (≤ 1.5 cm) terbanyak, yaitu 50% . Persilangan Cayenne x Merah menghasilkan
persentase bobot buah > 1500 g terbanyak (23.07 %) dan persentase buah dengan tebal daging > 4 cm
terbanyak (76.32%). Hibrida yang mempunyai karakter daun tidak berduri / duri hanya di ujung daun, rasa
sangat manis (TSS ≥ 20 °Brix ), dan bentuk mata lebar, adalah CQ-20, CB-1. Sedangkan hibrida dengan karakter
tidak berduri / duri hanya di ujung daun, rasa sangat manis (TSS ≥ 20 °Brix ), dan bentuk mata menonjol adalah
CQ-16, CQ-41. Informasi ini dapat digunakan sebagai pertimbangan untuk pemilihan tetua jantan dan betina
dalam program perakitan varietas unggul nenas.
Kata kunci: A. comosus, A. bracteatus, evaluasi, komponen hasil, mutu buah.

ABSTRACT.
The aim of the research was to evaluate the important characters of pineapple hybrids from crossing
between Cayenne, Queen, A. bracteatus, and Merah parents. This research was conducted at the Research
Institute for Tropical Fruit in Solok, from June 2004 to December 2006 . Genetic materials used were 58 hybrid
plants from Cayenne x Queen crossing, 24 hybrid plants from Cayenne x A. bracteatus crossing, and 26 hybrid
plants from Cayenne x Merah crossing. All of the plants were planted on polybag with size 40x50 cm.
Observation was done per plant on qualitative and quantitative characters. The results showed that the
distribution of spines on the leaves and the shape of eyes were affected by female parents. Cayenne x Queen
crossing produced the most percentage of hybrids with small crown weight (≤ 100 g), and very sweet taste (TSS
> 20° brix), i.e. 48.27% and 8.62% respectively. Cayenne x A. bracteatus crossing produced the most
percentage of hybrids with small core diameter (≤ 1.5 cm) was 50% . Cayenne x Merah crossing produced the
most percentage of hybrids with big fruit weight (> 1500 g) and flesh thickness > 4 cm. i.e. 23.07% and 76.32%
respectively. The hybrid plants possessing the combined characters of spineless or spiny at the leaf tip, very
sweet taste (TSS ≥ 20°Brix), and broad eyes were CQ-20 and CB-1. Meanwhile, hybrids with characters of
spineless or spiny at the leaf tip, very sweet taste (TSS ≥ 20°Brix), and projected eyes were CQ-16 and CQ-41.
These results can potentially provide valuable information on the choice of female and male parents for the
programs of pineapple variety improvement.
Key words: A.comosus, A. bracteatus, evaluation, yield component, fruit quality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.agrin.2012.16.2.136

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