GALUR KEDELAI HITAM PROSPEKTIF UNTUK AGROEKOSISTEM INDONESIA

M. M. Adie, Suyamto Suyamto, Ayda Krisnawati

Abstract


Kedelai hitam penting untuk bahan baku kecap dan dalam dekade terakhir permintaannya meningkat.
Prospek lima galur harapan kedelai hitam (9837/K-D-8-185, 9837/K-D-3-185-195, W/9837-D-6-220, 9837/K-D-
3-185-82 dan 9837/W-D-5-211) dikaji di 18 sentra produksi kedelai di Jabar, DIY, Jatim, Bali dan NTB pada
musim kemarau. Varietas Cikuray, Wilis dan Burangrang digunakan sebagai pembanding. Penelitian dilakukan
tahun 2004 – 2006, menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan empat ulangan. Ukuran petak 2,0 m x 4,5
m, jarak tanam 40 cm x 15 cm, dua tanaman per rumpun. Pemupukan dengan 50 kg Urea, 100 kg SP36 dan 75
kg KCl per ha diberikan secara sebar merata sebelum tanam. Pengendalian gulma, hama dan penyakit dilakukan
intensif. Ragam 18 agroekosistem dan potensi genetik delapan galur berlainan dan menyebabkan terjadinya
interaksi genotipe x lingkungan (G x L). Rata-rata hasil biji dari 18 lokasi berkisar dari 2,09 hingga 2,92 t/ha
(rata-rata 2,36 t/ha) dan rentang hasil dari delapan galur beragam dari 2,03 hingga 2,51 t/ha. Varietas Cikuray
berdaya hasil 2,03 t/ha; dan lima galur kedelai hitam memiliki daya hasil 18% lebih tinggi dibandingkan
Cikuray, bahkan kelima galur kedelai hitam juga mampu berproduksi lebih tinggi dibandingkan varietas kedelai
populer saat ini yaitu Wilis (2,36 t/ha) maupun varietas kedelai berbiji besar Burangrang (2,20 t/ha).
Agroekosistem budidaya kedelai di Indonesia sangat beragam, sehingga diperlukan galur yang mampu berdaya
hasil relatif stabil pada lingkungan tersebut. Galur 9837/W-D-5-211 (2,46 t/ha) memiliki fluktuasi hasil di 18
lokasi relatif kecil, karenanya dinilai paling prospektif untuk agroekosistem Indonesia.
Kata kunci : kedelai hitam, potensi hasil

 

ABSTRACT
Black soybean is an important raw material for soy-sauce industries, which its demand is increasing at the
last decade. Five prospective of black soybean lines (9837/K-D-8-185, 9837/K-D-3-185-195, W/9837-D-6-220,
9837/K-D-3-185-82 dan 9837/W-D-5-211) were tested at 18 locations of soybean production areas in West
Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, Bali and West Nusa Tenggara. Cikuray, Wilis and Burangrang were used as check
varieties. The experiment was done during dry season 2004-2006, by using randomized block design with four
replicates. The plot size was 2,0 m x 4,5 m, 40 cm x 15 cm plant distance, two plants/hill, and fertilized by 50 kg
Urea, 100 kg SP36 and 75 kg KCl per ha. The results showed that the soybean agroecosystems were vary among
18 locations, caused significantly interaction between genotype x environments (G x E). The seed yield average
from 18 locations was 2,09-2,92 t/ha (average 2,36 t/ha) and seed yield of eight genotypes was from 2,03 until
2,51 t/ha. The Cikuray seed yield was 2,03 t/ha. Five black soybean lines have 18% higher yield than Cikuray,
also higher comparing with the yield of populer variety of Wilis (2,36 t/ha) and large seed variety of Burangrang
(2,20 t/ha). The high yield and stable promising lines were needed for soybean cultivation in Indonesian
agroecosystem. Genotype of 9837/W-D-5-211 (2,46 t/ha) was identify as a relatively stable and prospective line
for Indonesian agroecosystem.
Key words: black soybean, yield potential

 


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.agrin.2008.12.2.93

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Agriculture Research Journal
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