TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN TEPUNG DARI BERBAGAI JENIS PISANG MENGGUNAKAN CARA PENGERINGAN MATAHARI DAN MESIN PENGERING

Histifarina D, Adetiya Rachman, Didit Rahadian, Sukmaya Sukmaya

Abstract

Pisang merupakan buah yang mudah rusak, karena termasuk buah klimakterik, sehingga perlu
pengawetan lebih lanjut. Salah satunya diolah menjadi tepung pisang. Pengolahan pisang menjadi tepung agar
mempunyai masa simpan lebih lama, lebih mudah dalam pengemasan dan pengangkutan, lebih praktis untuk
diversifikasi produk olahan, mampu memberikan nilai tambah buah pisang, dan mampu menciptakan peluang
usaha pengembangan agroindustri pedesaan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan jenis pisang yang
tepat yang dapat menghasilkan tepung pisang dengan menggunakan pengering konvensional dan non
konvensional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Pascapanen BPTP Jawa Barat dari bulan Mei hingga
September 2010. Metodologi pendekatan yang dilakukan yaitu metode eksperimen menggunakan Rancangan
Acak Lengkap Faktorial dengan 2 perlakuan (2 cara pengeringan dan 4 jenis pisang) dan diulang 2 kali. Data
yang diamati meliputi sifat fisik (rendemen dan derajat putih), sifat kimia tepung pisang (kadar air, kadar abu,
kada gula reduksi, kadar karbohidrat, kadar lemak dan kadar vitamin C). dan uji organoleptik (aroma dan warna)
serta analisis finansial. Hasil pengkajian menunjukkan bahwa jenis pisang nangka dapat menghasilkan rendemen
tertinggi yaitu sebesar 27,48% dengan karakteristik kimia 9,2%- 11,05%; kadar KH = 50,25-51,23%; kandungan
gula total 1,3-1,46% dan vit C 80,85-97,35 mg/100 gram.
Kata kunci : pisang, tepung, sifat kimia, sifat organoleptik, kelayakan finansial

ABSTRACT
Bananas were easily damaged because it was included on climacteric fruit, so it needs further
preservation. One of the preservation was processed into banana flour. Processing bananas into flour gave a
longer shelf life, easier in the packaging and transportation, more practical for the diversification of processed
products, provide added value and to create opportunities for rural agro-industry development efforts. The
objectives of this research were to get the right type of banana that can produce banana flour using conventional
drying and non conventional Research conducted at the Laboratory of Postharvest West Java BPTP from May to
September 2010. Methodology approach taken was based on experiment using completely randomized factorial
design with 2 treatments (2 types of drying and 4 types of bananas) and 2 repeated samples. The observed data
included the physical properties (yield and whiteness), the chemical properties of banana flour (moisture
content, ash content, reducing sugar, carbohydrate content, fat content and levels of vitamin C), organoleptic
test (smell and color) and financial analysis. The research indicated that the type of nangka banana could
produced the highest yield of 27.48% with the chemical characteristics of 9.2% - 11.05%; levels of KH = 50.25
to 51.23%, total sugar content from 1.3 to 1.46% and 80.85 to 97.35 mg/100 g of vitamin C.
Key words : banana, flour, chemical properties, organoleptic properties, financial feasibility

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