TEKNIK BUDIDAYA SINGKONG OLEH PETANI DI KOTA BENGKULU

Supanjani Supanjani

Abstract

Singkong dapat menjadi sumber pangan alternatif dan sumber bioenergi yang paling efisien dibandingkan
dengan tebu dan jagung, yang menjadi sumber utama bioetanol dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
mengumpulkan informasi teknologi budidaya singkong, dari sisi klon, pengolahan lahan, penanaman dan
pemupukan, yang diterapkan oleh petani di Kota Bengkulu beserta produktivitasnya. Survey dilakukan dengan
mengidentifikasi pertanaman singkong yang sudah tumbuh dan cukup umur untuk dipanen, mendiskusikan
dengan petani teknik budidaya yang diterapkan, membeli, mengukur pertumbuhan dan memanen tanaman
sampel singkong untuk menduga produktivitasnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa teknik budidaya yang
diterapkan oleh petani beragam sehingga produktivitasnya beragam dengan rentang 19 – 75 ton ha-1. Petani
memilih klon-klon yang telah terbukti berproduksi tinggi di daerahnya maupun di daerah lain. Produktivita
singkong yang tinggi disebabkan oleh penggunaan bibit unggul produksi tinggi, pengolahan lahan sempurna dan
pemupukan kandang yang dicampur pada saat pengolahan lahan. Fleksibilitas pemanenan ubi dapat
dimanfaatkan oleh petani untuk mengatasi deteriorasi fisiologis pasca panen. Penelitian lebih lanjut perlu
difokuskan tentang keseuaian klon dan teknik budidaya yang meliputi pemupukan anorganik dan hayati dengan
mikroba pemacu pertumbuhan tanaman, serta kualitas singkong untuk bahan pangan dan bioethanol.
Kata kunci: singkong, petani, produktivitas, teknik budidaya

ABSTRACT
Cassava can be the most efficient crop for food and altervative energy as compared with sugarcane and
corn, currently main feeding sources of world bioethanol. A survey was conducted to gather information
regarding cultural techniques used for growing cassava, with regard to clone/genetic selection, soil tillage,
planting pattern and fertilization applied by farmers in Bengkulu City, and their related root productivity. Plots
of cassava crops reaching their maturity were identified. Discussions were accomplished farmers regarding with
cultural techniques in growing cassava, follwed by measuring plant growth and taking samples for assessing
root growth and yield. The results demonstrated that farmers varied in applying cultural techniques for growing
cassava hence their cassava yields varied greatly from 19 to 75 ton ha-1. Farmers selected cassava propagules
based on information, both from their own vicinity or from other places, that they are high yielding. High root
productivity was related to the use of high-yielding varieties, full tillage combined with manure fertilization. The
advantage of flexibility in harvesting root were employed by farmers with daily harvesting to aleviate postharvest
physiological deterioration in selling fresh root. Based on this informastion, further researches should
be focused on the suitability of cassava clones with specific environment, cultural techniques, including
anorganic fertilization, the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteri and their related root qualities for food
and bioethanol.
Key words: cassava, farmers, cultural techniques, yield

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