PENGARUH PERLAKUAN PRA-KULTUR TERHADAP EFISIENSI REGENERASI IN VITRO LIMA VARIETAS KEDELAI

Yesi Safitri, Akari Edy, Setyo Dwi Utomo

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan pra-kultur (imbibisi atau pengecambahan)
terhadap efisiensi regenerasi in vitro lima varietas kedelai. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur
Jaringan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Lampung, dari bulan November 2011 sampai dengan Maret 2012.
Percobaan ini disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok yang terdiri atas 6 ulangan. Perlakuan disusun secara
faktorial (5x2); faktor pertama adalah varietas kedelai sebagai sumber eksplan (Anjasmoro, Willis, Kaba,
Sinabung, dan Seulawah); dan faktor kedua adalah perlakuan pra-kultur (imbibisi dan pengecambahan). Setiap
satu satuan percobaan terdiri atas lima eksplan yang dikulturkan dalam satu botol. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata jumlah tunas adventif per eksplan (RJTA) nyata dipengaruhi oleh perlakuan prakultur;
tetapi tidak nyata dipengaruhi oleh varietas dan interaksi antara varietas dan perlakuan pra-kultur. RJTA
perlakuan imbibisi yaitu 15,4 tunas per eksplan nyata lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan pengecambahan yaitu 12,9
tunas per eksplan. Presentase eksplan yang menghasilkan tunas adventif (PEMTA) pada 30 hari setelah tanam
perlakuan imbibisi dan pengecambahan tidak berbeda nyata jika digunakan eksplan varietas Wilis, Sinabung,
dan Seulawah. Jika menggunakan eksplan varietas Anjasmoro, PEMTA perlakuan imbibisi nyata lebih tinggi
daripada pengecambahan; sebaliknya pada varietas Kaba, perlakuan pengecambahan nyata lebih tinggi daripada
imbibisi. Pada perlakuan imbibisi, PEMTA varietas Anjasmoro (87%) nyata lebih tinggi daripada Kaba (67%);
sebaliknya pada perlakuan pengecambahan, PEMTA Anjasmoro (67%) nyata lebih rendah daripada Kaba
(87%). Disimpulkan bahwa prosedur regenerasi menggunakan pra-kultur imbibisi atau germinasi termasuk
efisien.
Kata kunci: buku kotiledon, kedelai, imbibisi, pengecambahan, organogenesis

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of pre-culture treatment on the efficiency of in vitro
regeneration of five soybean cultivars. The study was conducted in tissue culture laboratory, College of
Agriculture,University of Lampung from November 2011 – March 2012. The experiment was arranged in
completely-randomized block design with six replications. Treatments consisted of two factors; the first was
soybean cultivars as the source of explants (Anjasmoro, Willis, Kaba, Sinabung, dan Seulawah; the second was
pre-culture treatment (imbibitions for 20 hours and germination for 6 days). The results showed that the means
of adventive shoots per explants (MASPE)) was significanty affected by pre-culture treatment; but not affected
by the cultivars and the interaction of the two factors. MASPE of imbibitions treatment (15,4 shoots per
explants) was significantly higher than than that of germination (12,9 shoot per explants). The percentage if
explants producing adventive shoots (PEPAS) observed on 30 days after planting was notsignificantly different
for the explants of cultivar Wilis, Sinabung, and Seulawah. If using Anjasmoro as the source of explants, PEPAS
of imbibitions treatment was significanty higher than that of germination; on the other hand, if using Kaba the
germination treatment was significantly higher than that of imbibiton. At imbibiton treatment, PEPAS
Anjasmoro (87%) was significantly higher than that of Kaba (67%); on the other hand, at germination
treatment, PEPAS Anjasmoro (67%) was significantly lower than that of Kaba (87%). It was concluded that this
procedure of in vitro regeneraton using imbibiton or germination was efficient.
Key words: cotyledonary node, soybean, imbibition, germination organogenesis

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