HUBUNGAN FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN TANAH TERHADAP INTENSITAS BUSUK PANGKAL BAWANG PUTIH DI TAWANGMANGU

Hadiwiyono Hadiwiyono, Salim Widono

Abstract

Busuk pangkal bawang putih yang disebabkan Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cepae (Hanz.) Snyd.
et. Hans. adalah penyakit paling penting di Tawangmangu sejak musim tanam 2000. Penyakit ini telah
merugikan hasil bawang putih secara ekonomi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan antara
kondisi lingkungan tanah terhadap intensitas busuk pangkal bawang putih di Tawangmangu. Penelitian
dilakukan melalui survei pertanaman bawang putih di daerah endemik busuk pangkal di Tawangmangu,
Karanganyar, Jawa Tengah. Sebanyak 30 pertanaman bawang putih yang ditentukan dengan metode purposive
sampling digunakan pada penelitian ini. Sampel tanah rhizosfer untuk keperluan analisis biologi dan kimia tanah
ditentukan dengan metode transect system. Data yang diperoleh dianalsis regresi linier berganda dengan program
SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intensitas busuk pangkal bawang putih di Tawangmangu
berhubungan dengan perubahan kondisi lingkungan tanah. Intensitas busuk pangkal bawang putih cenderung
tinggi pada lahan dengan kapasitas pertukaran kation, bahan organik, dan Nitrogen yang tinggi, tetapi Fosfor dan
Kalium yang rendah.
Kata Kunci: Fusarium oxysporum, busuk pangkal, bawang putih, ekologi.

 

ABSTRACT
Basal rot of gar;ic caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schleht. F.sp. cepae (Hanz.) Snyd et. Hans. Is the most
important disease in tawangmangu since planting season 2000. The disease has lased garlic production
economically. The aim of research was to analysze the relationship beetwen soil environmental condition toward
intensity basal rot of garlic in Tawangmangu. Dat was collected by survey on garlic plant of epidemic area of
basal rot in Tawangmangu, Karangayar, Central Java. There were 30 samples of garlic determined by purposive
sampling method. Rhizosper soil sample for biological and soil chemical analysis gained by transect system
method. Data obtained where analyzed by multiple linear regression using SPSS softwere. The result showed
that intensity of garlic basal rot in Tawangmangu has significant relationship with the change of soil
environmenr condition. Intensity of garlic basal rot terd to increase in lard which have high cation exchange
capacity, organic material and nitrogen, but low phosphorus and kalium.
Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum, basal rot, garlic, ecology.

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