PENGARUH UKURAN BENIH TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT MAKADAMIA (Macadamia integrifolia)

Nana Heryana, Rusli Rusli, Gusti Indriati

Abstract

Makadamia merupakan tanaman tahunan penghasil biji berkadar lemak lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan
kacang-kacangan yang banyak dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Produk makadamia berupa kacang yang bernilai
ekonomi tinggi di pasaran internasional dan menjadi bahan baku industri yang dapat diolah menjadi berbagai
bentuk makanan dan telah dipasarkan di beberapa kota besar di Indonesia. Penelitian bertujuan untuk
mengetahui ukuran benih makadamia yang tepat untuk dijadikan bibit. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Balai
Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Aneka Tanaman Industri (Balittri) Pakuwon, Parungkuda, Sukabumi, Jawa
Barat pada bulan April 2006 sampai April 2007. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan
3 perlakuan dan 9 ulangan, adapun perlakuannya sebagai berikut : A (benih besar: berat biji 6-7 g, diameter biji
2,1-2,3 cm), B (benih sedang : berat biji 5-6 g, diameter biji 1,8-2,0 cm) dan C (benih kecil : berat biji 4-5 g,
diameter biji 1,5-1,7 cm). Jumlah pohon contoh yang diamati tiap perlakuan terdiri atas 45 pohon, sehingga
seluruhnya menjadi 135 pohon. Variabel yang diamati meliputi : tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah
cabang, jumlah daun, panjang daun dan lebar daun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ukuran benih sedang
dan besar, pertumbuhannya lebih baik bila dibandingkan dengan benih kecil tetapi ukuran benih sedang dan
besar pada semua parameter tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata dan hasil pengamatan, tinggi tanaman
26,63 cm, diameter batang 0,50 cm, jumlah cabang 0,50 cabang, jumlah daun 19,70 helai, panjang daun
17,68 cm dan lebar daun 2,72 cm yang terbaik diperoleh pada benih ukuran sedang.
Kata kunci: makadamia, Macadamia integrifolia, ukuran, benih, bibit, pertumbuhan

ABSTRACT
Macadamia is a perennial plant which produce seed contains higher fat rather than other legumes
in Indonesia. Macadamia has high economic value in International market and becomes raw material for industry
that could be processed onto many variety of food and have been sold in several big cities in Indonesia. The
objectives of research were to know the appropriate Macadamia’s seed size for seedling. This research was held
at The Research Institute of Spices and Industrial Crop (Balittri) in Pakuwon, Parungkuda, Sukabumi, West Java
on April 2006 until April 2007. the experimental design of research was using randomized block design with 3
treatment and 9 replications. The treatment were: A (large seed: seed weigh was 6-7 g, seed diameter was 2.1-2.3
cm), B (middle seed: seed weigh was 5-6 g, seed diameter was 1.8-2.0 cm), C (small seed: seed weigh was 4-5
g, seed diameter was 1.5-1.7 cm). The amount of tree sample for every treatment were 45 tree, so for whole there
were 135 tree. Variable consist height, stem diameters, number of branch’s and leaves , length and width of
leaves. Result of research showed that seed size for medium and large have better growth than smaller seed, thus
seed size for medium and large for all variable did not show significant difference, i.e. plant weight was 26.63
cm, stem diameter was 0.50 cm, amount of branch was 0.50 branch, lenght of leaves was 17.68 cm and width of
leaves was 2.72 cm
Key Words: macadamia, Macadamia integrifolia, size, seed, growth

 

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